In conflict with this British-Saudi alliance was the wartime alliance reached between Britain and Sharif Husayn, the Emir of Mecca, who enjoyed a special Arab and Islamic prestige as a recognized descendant of the Prophet, and whose family were called the Hashemites.
The legitimacy of Lebanon alone as a state, for the Arabs in general and also among the Lebanese, remained in full question. Following the defeat of Turkey in the war and the break-up of the Ottoman Empire, the French occupy Lebanon and Syria and obtain a League of Nations mandate to govern them as does Britain in Palestine.
To the Maronites and many other Christians in Lebanon, there were no doubts about the matter. In October, Hariri returns as prime minister. Traditionally, the Lebanese food is served with Arak ; a clear licorice flavored liqueur made locally from grapes.
Israel forms a proxy militia in the south of the country. Thus, the politically ambitious among the Palestinian Arabs had to compete for the leadership of the nationalist opposition, not for power and position in an actual ruling establishment.
Here, as in Central and Eastern Europe, new states were formed, but with an important difference. This has led to an enormous decrease to the Druze population in Mount-Lebanon, who were a majority back then and helped the Christians overcome the Druze demographically.
In Syria, France was to get the Vilayet of Aleppo and the northern parts of the Vilayets of Beirut and Damascus, leaving the southern parts of these two vilayets essentially to Britain, with the understanding that the Holy Land of Palestine would have an international status.
The Maronites and the Druze divided Lebanon until the modern era. Bashir III, coming on the heels of a man who by guile, force and diplomacy had dominated Mt Lebanon and the Biqa for 52 years, did not last long.
Behind them, the Maronites had a rich and eventful past which will be reviewed as a separate story in due course. Naturally, it was impossible for Britain after the war to honour simultaneously all these conflicting commitments fully.
By contrast the Lebanese national anthem, written by the Maronite poet Rashid Nakhleh, sang of the old men of Lebanon and the young, in the mountains and the plains, responding to the call of the historical fatherland and rallying around the 'eternal' cedar flag to defend 'Lebanon forever'.
Arafat also tried to push the U. The flag of this new Lebanon was to be none other than the French tricolour itself, with a cedar tree - now hailed as the glorious symbol of the ancient country since Biblical times - featuring on the central white.
In the approach to World War I, Beirut became a center of various reforming movements, and would send delegates to the Arab Syrian conference and Franco-Syrian conference held in Paris.
The Sharif, however, was led to understand that it would include all of Mesopotamia; all but a negotiable strip of coastal Syria; and the whole of peninsular Arabia, except for the parts which were already established as British protectorates. Nevertheless, to the extent that it did develop, the sense of special nationality among the people of Iraq remained rudimentary and confused.
In the arrangements which the British made in the parts of the area allotted to them, or where they already wielded dominant influence, all three were readily accommodated.
His stay nevertheless allowed him to witness Europe's cultural revival in the 17th century, and bring back some Renaissance ideas and architectural features.
Throughout the siege, the PLO hid behind innocent civilians, accurately calculating that if Israel were to attack, it would be internationally condemned. The Shihabs originally lived in the Hawran region of southwestern Syria and settled in Wadi al-Taym in southern Lebanon.
The Syrian Republic, it is true, had also been finally put together in response to nationalist demand; in fact, following a nationalist uprising which lasted more than two yearsprovoking a French bombardment of Damascus.
Resentments and fears would brood, ones which would resurface in the coming decades. It was the first Arab country to permit private radio and TV.
The Taif Agreement is negotiated, marking the first steps in the ending of the civil war. When the country received its Constitution and became a parliamentary republic, the French saw to it that a Greek Orthodox Christian rather than a Maronite became its first president, with a Sunnite Muslim as a speaker of its parliament; but the Maronites nevertheless managed to secure for themselves all other key positions in the government and the administration, and ultimately the presidency of the republic as well.
For example, several thousand terrorists currently in Lebanon are members of Hezbollah. Clearly, in both cases, what was actually said by way of argument on the surface covered something else underneath: In the case of Lebanon, the Maronites had indicated precisely what they wanted. The major cities on the coast, AcreBeirutand others, were directly administered by Muslim Caliphs.
Although Saladin eliminated Christian control of the Holy Land aroundthe Crusader states in Lebanon and Syria were better defended. For the Palestine east of the Jordan, or Transjordan, a special administrative arrangement was soon made.
Hariri resigns as prime minister, to be replaced by Salim al-Huss. Inwith the help of France, they had already secured a special political status for their historical homeland of Mount Lebanon as a mutesarrifate, or privileged sanjak administrative regionwithin the Ottoman system, under an international guaranty.
Since most of the silk went to Marseillethe French began to have a great impact in the region. About 5, US marines are sent to Lebanon to after an appeal from the government to help control an uprising.
But it was certainly no accident that the original proponents of Lebanism in the country were almost exclusively Christians, and for the most part Maronites, while the most unbending proponents of Arabism, as a community, were the Muslims. To many Maronites, this appeared as an outright French betrayal of their cause.
The Syrians side with the Maronites and attempt to control the Palestinians.Other articles where Lebanese Civil War is discussed: Lebanon: Civil war: The experiment in state building started by Chehab and continued by Hélou came to an end with the election of Suleiman Franjieh to the presidency in August Franjieh, a traditional Maronite clan leader from the Zghartā region of northern Lebanon, proved unable.
Some key dates in Lebanon's history: - Lebanon is part of the Ottoman Empire. Lebanon is characterized by great religious and cultural diversity. At the time of independence Christians formed a slight majority of the population, the largest single. Overview: Lebanon Town History Location: Lebanon, CT is located in east central Connecticut in northern New London County, although historically the town was also affiliated with Windham County.
From its incorporation inLebanon was part of New London County. Lebanon is characterized by great religious and cultural diversity. At the time of independence Christians formed a slight majority of the population, the largest single. Brief History: Lebanon is a small country at the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
The Nature of Lebanon being distinguished from the mostly desert-countries surrounding it, along with the impact of the civilizations that inhabited Lebanon through thousands of years reached its .Download